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Adidas Telstar-style ball, with the familiar black and white truncated icosahedron pattern. The name of the ball varies according to whether the sport is called « football », « soccer », or « association football ». Early footballs began as animal bladders or stomachs that would easily premier Oeil PDF apart if kicked too much.


Improvements became possible in the 19th century with the introduction of rubber and discoveries of vulcanization by Charles Goodyear. A black-and-white patterned truncated icosahedron design, brought to prominence by the Adidas Telstar, has become an icon of the sport. Many different designs of balls exist, varying both in appearance and physical characteristics. Leather ball used in the football tournament at the 1936 Summer Olympics. In the year 1863, the first specifications for footballs were laid down by the Football Association. Previous to this, footballs were made out of inflated leather, with later leather coverings to help footballs maintain their shapes. Footballs have gone through a dramatic change over time.

During medieval times balls were normally made from an outer shell of leather filled with cork shavings. Another method of creating a ball was using animal bladders for the inside of the ball making it inflatable. However, these two styles of creating footballs made it easy for the ball to puncture and were inadequate for kicking. In 1838, Charles Goodyear introduced vulcanized rubber, which dramatically improved the football. Vulcanisation is the treatment of rubber to give it certain qualities such as strength, elasticity, and resistance to solvents. This problem was most probably due to water absorption of the leather from rain, which caused a considerable increase in weight, causing head or neck injury. By around 2017, this had also been associated with dementia in former players.

Elements of the football that today are tested are the deformation of the football when it is kicked or when the ball hits a surface. Basic FE model and the Developed FE model of the football. Today’s footballs are more complex than past footballs. Most modern footballs consist of twelve regular pentagonal and twenty regular hexagonal panels positioned in a truncated icosahedron spherical geometry. Some premium-grade 32-panel balls use non-regular polygons to give a closer approximation to sphericality. Many companies throughout the world produce footballs.

The earliest balls were made by local suppliers where the game was played. Sialkot, Pakistan, with other major producers being China and India. In early FIFA World Cups, match balls were mostly provided by the hosts from local suppliers. Records indicate a variety of models being used within individual tournaments and even, on some occasions, individual games.

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